Glossary



A


accelerando


accent mark


accidental


adagietto


adagio


adagissimo


Aftertouch


allegretto


allegrissimo


allegro


alto clef


andante


andantino


arpeggio


articulation


asterisk *


a tempo


attack


B


bar


barline


bass clef


beam


beat


beat value


brace


bracket


C


Channel


Channel Aftertouch


chord


chord progression


clef


clipboard


coda


common time


complete meter


compound note


controller


counter


crescendo


cut time


D


Da Capo


Dal Segno


decrescendo


default


degree


diatonic


diminuendo


dot


double barline


double flat


double sharp


driver


duplet


duration


dynamic marks


E


enharmonic


expression


F


fermata


Fine


fine barline


flag


flat


forte


fortissimo


forzato


G


General MIDI


glissando


grace note


grand staff


H


hairpins


half step


I


interval


inversion


IRQ or Interrupt


J-K


Key Aftertouch


key signature


L


larghetto


larghissimo


largo


lead-in measure


leading tone


legato


ledger line


lentissimo


lento


loop record


M


major


marker


measure


meter


metronome


mezzo forte


mezzo piano


middle C


MIDI


MIDI device


MIDI Event


MIDI file


MIDI instrument


MIDI Thru


MIDI volume


minor


mode


moderato


Modulation Wheel


mordent


multi-voicing


N-O


natural sign


notation


note


note value


octave


ornament


overdub


P


Patch


pedal mark


phrase


pianissimo


piano


pitch


Pitch Bend


pizzicato


polyphony/polyphonic


port


prestissimo


presto


Program Change


Q


quantize


R


real-time recording


repeat


rest


RIFF MIDI file


rhythm


rhythmic unit


ritardando


root


ruler


S


scale


score


second


segno


semitone


sequencer


sforzando


sforzato


sharp


single barline


slur


sound source


staccato


step record


system


System Common Message


System Exclusive Message


System Realtime Message


T-U


tempo


tempo slider


template


tenor clef


third


tick


tie


time signature


tool tips


track


transpose


treble clef


tremolo


triad


trill


triplet


tuplet


turn


V


velocity


vivace


vivacissimo


vivo


voice


W-Z


wave file


whole step

accelerando


An expression that indicates a gradual quickening of the tempo. (Italian for "abbreviated.")

accent mark


A symbol or term indicating that a note or chord is to be played with emphasis or force. See staccato, legato, sforzando (sf), and forzato (fz).

accidental


A symbol placed before a note that alters the sound by raising or lowering the pitch one or two half steps, or, in the case of the natural, by canceling the effect of any other accidental. See sharp, flat, double sharp, double flat, and natural.

adagietto


A slow tempo that is slightly faster than adagio. Typically less than 60 beats per minute.

adagio


A slow, leisurely tempo that is not quite as slow as largo. (Italian for "at ease.") Around 52 beats per minute.

adagissimo


A slow tempo that is slightly slower than adagio. Typically around 43 beats per minute.

aftertouch


The pressure applied to a key on a MIDI keyboard after the key has been pressed down. Some MIDI keyboards send this special information, although numerous devices do not respond to aftertouch. There are two types of aftertouch: key, or polyphonic aftertouch (each key sends out aftertouch independently), and channel aftertouch (all keys assigned to one channel send out the same message).

allegretto


A light, brisk tempo that is not quite as fast as allegro. Around 100 beats per minute.

allegrissimo


A lively tempo that is faster than allegro. Typically just over 200 beats per minute.

allegro


A fast, lively tempo. (Italian for "cheerful.") Around 120 beats per minute.

alto clef



The moveable C-clef is called the alto clef when it establishes the third line of the staff as middle C. The alto clef is usually used in music for the viola.

andante


A medium slow, walking tempo that is somewhere between adagio and allegro. (Italian for "walking.") Around 60 beats per minute.

andantino


A slow tempo that is usually slightly faster than andante. Around 70 beats per minute.

arpeggio


An ornament indicating that the notes in a chord are played in succession, one right after the other, rather than simultaneously. (Italian for "on the harp.")

articulation


Symbols and terms such as accents, slurs, and phrase markings indicate how notes should be played or "articulated." These markings point out which notes to play with emphasis, which to play smoothly together, and which to play separately from each other.

asterisk *


In piano music, an asterisk is the part of a pedal mark that indicates when the sustain pedal is to be released.

a tempo


An indication to return to the original temp after a change in tempo (accelerando or ritardando) or after a pause (fermata).

attack


The moment when a sound is articulated.

bar


A term often used to refer to a measure. The space between one bar line and the next, a measure groups a specific number of beats as determined by the time signature.

barline


The vertical line marked on a staff to indicate the point of division between measures.

bass clef



Also known as the F-clef, the bass clef establishes the fourth line of the staff as the note F. Notes placed below middle C are usually written on this clef.

beam



A beam is used to join groups of flagged notes. Primary beams link flagged notes making up a beat, while secondary beams define the subdivisions of the notes linked by the primary beam.

beat


A unit of time in music. A beat is equal to the value of the lower number in the time signature.

beat value


The lower number of the time signature provides the beat value. For example, in a 3/4 time signature, the "4" tells you that a quarter note receives one beat.

brace



Braces are commonly used to connect two or more staves that are played on one instrument, such as a piano or harp, where the music is to be read and played by one performer.

bracket



Brackets are commonly used in orchestral music to connect the staves that belong to a family of instruments (for example, violins) and in choral music to group staves of individual vocal parts into systems that will be sung by more than one singer (for example, a trio).

Channel


(MIDI term) The General MIDI standard allows 16 MIDI channels. Each channel could be assigned to a different MIDI instrument. Only instruments "tuned" to a channel will receive the messages assigned to that channel.

Channel Afterouch


(MIDI term) All the keys on one channel send out the same Aftertouch message.

chord


A simultaneous sounding of three of more pitches.

chord progression


A short succession of logically ordered chords or harmonies that makes musical sense and can stand as an identifiable or repeatable item.

clef


A symbol placed at the beginning of a staff that determines the pitch of the notes. The clef fixes the position of one pitch, which is then used as a reference point for other pitches on the staff. See treble clef, bass clef, alto clef, and tenor clef.

clipboard


A temporary area to which you can copy and from which you can retrieve music data. The Cut and Copy commands place selected data into the Clipboard, while the Paste command retrieves the information for placement in a music document.

coda



A short passage of music often taken from within a composition that is repeated at the end to provide a sense of closure as the piece concludes. (Italian for "tail.")

common time



Another name for 4/4 time. In common time, four quarter note beats make up a measure.

complete meter


The combined information located at the beginning of a composition. The complete meter includes the clef, the key signature, and the time signature.

compound note



A note written as two or more notes tied together; for example, a quarter note tied to an eighth note.

Controller


(MIDI term) A device (often an instrument such as a MIDI keyboard or drums) used to output MIDI messages. A controller can also be an instruction to change the volume or pan the sound, in which case it would be a type of MIDI event.

counter


The display in the Time Tool that indicates the present location in the music document in a bar:beat:tick format.

crescendo



A dynamic mark indicating that the volume is to become gradually louder. (Italian for "growing.")

cut time



Another name for 2/2 time. In cut time, two half note beats make up a measure.

Da capo


D.C., a repeat instruction that means to "repeat from the beginning."

Dal segno


D.S., a repeat instruction that means to "repeat from the sign."

decrescendo



A dynamic mark indicating that the volume is to become gradually softer. (Italian for "decreasing.")

default


A number, word or setting that a program automatically assumes or provides. For example, when using the Record button, the default destination track is the first unused (empty) track. Normally, you can use the Preferences command to change settings from their default values.

degree


A line or space on a staff.

diatonic


In a diatonic scale, notes occur naturally without modification by accidentals other than those in the key signature.

diminuendo


A dynamic mark indicating that the volume is to gradually become softer. (Italian for "waning.")

dot



A single dot placed after a note or rest increases the value by 50%, so the note's length is one and one half times its normal duration. Two dots increase a note's value by 75%, while three dots increase a note's value by 87.5%.

double barline



Consisting of two thin vertical lines, the double barline indicates either the end of a section in a piece of music or the end of the composition.

double flat



An accidental symbol that lowers the pitch of the note by one whole step.

double sharp



An accidental symbol that raises the pitch of the note by one whole step.

driver


Software that enables software applications to communicate with hardware devices. Drivers are installed with sound cards or MIDI interfaces for recording or playback of MIDI information with MIDI instruments.

duplet


Two notes of equal value that are played in the time normally occupied by three notes of the same value; indicated by a 2 above or below the notes. See tuplet.

duration


The length of time a note is played or a rest is held. A note's duration is measured in a beat:tick format where the number of ticks per beat can be adjusted so that one quarter note may have a duration of 1:0 while another has a duration of 0:0775. Both notes would look the same on the score, but during playback, the first note would be held longer than the second.

dynamic marks


The symbols, terms, and abbreviations used to indicate varying levels of loudness or softness in volume. Some dynamic marks indicate an immediate change in volume such as forte (loud) or piano (quiet), while others indicate a gradual change in volume such as crescendo (gradually getting louder).

enharmonic


Two notes that sound the same but are written differently. For example, F# and Gb represent the same pitch, but they are notated differently on the staff.

expression


Usually placed following the tempo marking at the beginning of a composition, expressions suggest the general feeling or mood of the music.

fermata



A sign placed over a note or rest to indicate that the sound or silence is to be held longer than its given value. (Italian for "pause.")

Fine


A term used at the end of a repeated section to mark the end of a song.

fine barline



A double barline consisting of a thin line followed by a thick one, that indicates the end of a composition.

flag


The flags attached to a note stem identify the note value: a note with one flag is an eighth note, a note with two flags is a sixteenth note, and so on.

flat



An accidental symbol that lowers the pitch of the note by one half step.

forte (f)


A dynamic mark indicating that the note(s) should be played loudly and strongly. (Italian for "loud.").

fortissimo (ff)


A dynamic mark indicating that the note(s) should be played louder and stronger than forte.

forzato (fz)



An accent mark indicating that a note or chord is to be strongly accented. The forzato accent, which represents a stronger attack than the sforzando accent, does not change the duration of the note.

General MIDI


(MIDI term) A standard protocol for communication between MIDI devices. The best known element of this is General MIDI's standard patch map.

glissando


An ornament indicating a rapid slide up or down between two pitches, sounding all the notes between them. On a keyboard for example, the effect is produced by sliding your fingers quickly up or down the keys. (Italian for "to glide.")

grace note


One of the small note ornaments, a grace note is a small-sized note that embellishes another note. Grace notes are usually not essential to the music, and their value is not included in the measure, but is subtracted from the preceding or following note.

grand staff


Used commonly in piano music, the grand staff is a combination of two staves. The upper staff, in the treble clef, is played by the right hand, and the lower staff, in the bass clef, is played by the left hand.

hairpins



Also called wedges, hairpins indicate a gradual increase or decrease in volume over a range of notes.

half step


Also known as a semitone, a half step is the smallest interval in Western music. On a piano keyboard, a half step is the distance from one key to the adjacent black or white key.

interval


The difference in pitch between two tones. Intervals can be measured in half-steps. Another method uses scale tone distance identifiers (e.g. major 3rd, perfect 5th, minor 6th).

inversion

  1.  


  1. One of the different forms a chord can take when the notes making up the chord are rearranged on the staff so that a note other than the root is the lowest note. In an inverted chord, the bottom note no longer shares the chord's name.
  2.  


  1. Flipping a melodic line around some horizontal axis. The melodic line is in effect turned "upside down". This is a common compositional technique found in composers from Bach to Schönberg.

IRQ or Interrupt


IBM PC compatible computers use interrupts to let peripherals share the time and resources of the computer. Each peripheral (printer, MIDI interface, modem, etc.) must be assigned a unique IRQ, or interrupt. If two devices are set for the same IRQ, the result will be anything from unreliable operation to complete failure.

Key Aftertouch


(MIDI term) Also known as polyphonic aftertouch, individual keys send out an Aftertouch message independently.

key signature


The group of specifically ordered sharps or flats that follows the clef sign at the beginning of the staff and indicates the key of the composition. The key signature affects the notes to which it refers in all octaves, unless canceled by another accidental or a key signature change.

larghetto


A slow tempo that is slightly faster than largo. Around 60 beats per minute.

larghissimo


A slow tempo that is slightly slower than largo. Around 40 beats per minute.

largo


A very slow, broad tempo. (Italian for "broad.") Around 50 beats per minute.

lead-in measure


The measure that is counted off by the metronome before recording or playing begins. It is often desirable to hear a lead-in measure to get used to the metronome's timing.

leading tone


A note that "leads" to resolution in the subsequent note which is typically just above it. In classical scale nomenclature the leading tone is the seventh note of the scale.

legato



An accent mark indicating that the attended notes are to be played in a smooth, connected manner. Often, a slur is used to join the notes in a passage of music.(Italian for "tied.") Legato is the opposite of staccato.

ledger line


The short horizontal lines drawn above and below a staff that extend the range of the staff for pitches that are too high or too low to be written on the staff. Ledger lines are added only when they are needed.

lentissimo


An extremely slow tempo that is slower than lento.Typically less than 50 beats per minute.

lento


A slow tempo. (Italian for "slow.") Around 50 beats per minute.

loop record


A special recording mode in which multiple "loops" are recorded one after another without having to stop, rewind and restart a recording on a different track. Several loop record variations are supported.

major


The name of a key based on a seven note diatonic scale, made up of intervals that conform to the following formula (in ascending order where w=whole step, and h=half step): w, w, h, w, w, w, h. For example, the key of C is made up of these notes: C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C (octave). Any key based on this seven note diatonic scale pattern is called a major key. See minor.

marker


A point in your music document that contains a bookmark. Markers are easy ways of navigating around the score using the Transport Controls.

measure


The space between one bar line and the next, a measure groups a specific number of beats as determined by the time signature.

meter


As indicated by the time signature, meter is the grouping of accented and unaccented beats in a measure. There are three types of meters: simple, compound, and combined.

metronome


Whether mechanical or electronic, a metronome is a device that marks time with a repeating tick. You can adjust the number of ticks or beats per minute to reference the desired meter and tempo.

mezzo forte (mf)


A mark indicating a dynamic level that is moderately loud, or half as loud as forte (f).

mezzo piano (mp)


A mark indicating a dynamic level that is moderately soft, or half as loud as piano (p).

middle C


The C on the piano that is closest to the center of the keyboard. The note is located on the first ledger line below the treble staff and the first ledger line above the bass staff. In MIDI terms, middle C is referred to as C4.

MIDI


Acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A language that electronic musical instruments, software, and computers use to communicate information about musical performance. The program sends and receives messages using the MIDI language so that it can talk to any instrument that also uses MIDI. MIDI information is typically sent using a five-pin round (DIN) connector. For example, a MIDI device can communicate and understand what notes are being played, how fast they are being played (in metronome time or hours, minutes, and seconds), how loudly or softly they are being played, and other factors. Each piece of data recorded or sent, such as a note, is referred to as a MIDI event or MIDI message

MIDI device


An electronic instrument, such as a synthesizer keyboard, that is capable of sending and receiving MIDI messages. Not all MIDI devices are capable of playback.

MIDI Event


A message sent between MIDI devices such as a MIDI keyboard and a computer. The message (or event) represents a note or an action on the note or MIDI channel.

MIDI file


A file format for the platform-independent exchange of MIDI sequences. Type 0 are single-track files. Type 1 are multi-track files. Type 2 files are rare and usually represent combinations of Type 1 files.

MIDI instrument


A device, such as an electronic synthesizer keyboard, that produces MIDI messages.

MIDI Thru


(MIDI term) MIDI data received at the input is sent on to the output. A MIDI THRU connector mirrors any data entering the MIDI IN port. Many MIDI software packages provide this feature. In hardware devices, this is typically a hard-wired connection.

MIDI volume


A MIDI Controller message—on controller 7—that affects the loudness of all notes on a particular MIDI Channel. (Volume is not the same thing as velocity in MIDI.)

minor (pure)


A key or seven note diatonic scale, made up of intervals that conform to the sequence w, h, w, w, h, w, w (in ascending order, w=whole step and h=half step). For example, the key of A minor is made up of these notes: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A (octave). Any key based on this seven note diatonic scale pattern is called a minor key. Other minor scales include melodic minor and harmonic minor. See major.

mode


The pattern of intervals of whole and half steps organized within a scale. The mode is defined by the manner in which the tones are arranged within an octave.

moderato


A medium tempo, around 80 beats per minute. Also an expression that modifies the meaning of a given tempo: for example, "andante moderato" is not quite as slow as andante.

Modulation Wheel


(MIDI term) A MIDI controller device which allows the user to change a certain parameter such as the amount of vibrato applied to a note. Typically set to controller 1.

mordent



An ornament indicating a single alternation between the written note and the note above or below it. The extra notes are played quickly and softly before the written note.

multi-voicing


More than one independent line of music on one staff.

natural sign



An accidental symbol that cancels the effect of a sharp or flat located either in the key signature or earlier in the same measure.

notation


The system of accepted symbols and marks used to communicate music information such as melody and rhythm in written form.

note


A symbol that represents the pitch (name) and duration of a tone by its position on a staff and its shape. When grouped in measures, notes also indicate the rhythm used in a piece of music.

note value


The value or duration of a note is indicated by the different types of notes. Each note has a value that describes the duration. For example, a quarter note = 1 beat; a dotted half note = 3 beats.

octave


The interval between two notes that have the same name but are not the same pitch; for example, the distance between middle C and high C is one octave.

ornament


A note or series of notes that do not belong to the main melody or harmony, but are used to adorn or decorate a music part. Ornaments can make the music more interesting, enhancing a part by adding feeling or drama. See arpeggio, glissando, tremolo, trill, mordent, and turn.

overdub


Add notes to the existing notes on a track by recording a new layer of music on top of an existing one.

Patch


Information that a synthesizer uses to define a specific sound wave form (timbre). See Program Change.

pedal mark


In music written for piano, the pedal mark indicates that the sustain (or right) pedal is to be pressed. See asterisk.

phrase


A unit of music or a musical thought that is usually two to four measures long, a musical phrase is similar to a clause or sentence in written language.

pianissimo (pp)


A dynamic mark indicating that the note(s) should be played very softly.

piano (p)


A dynamic mark indicating that the note(s) should be played softly. (Italian for "soft.")

pitch


The relative highness or lowness of a tone.

Pitch Bend


A MIDI message that changes the pitch of a note by sliding it up or down. The Pitch Bend action simulates a guitar player bending a string to "stretch" a pitch or a trombone player sliding from one note to another.

pizzicato



An accent mark for stringed instruments indicating that the strings are to be plucked rather than bowed on certain notes. Two types of pizzicato are available: Left Hand Pizzicato and Snap Pizzicato.

polyphony/polyphonic


A polyphonic tone-generator can play two or more notes at once. A '24-voice polyphonic' means the tone-generator is capable of 24 voices at once. Some sounds need 2 or more voices to create a note, so if you use sounds such as these, you are cutting your polyphony in half.

port


Computer hardware uses ports to transfer data. Each port has a unique address. This is a common setting on MIDI interfaces and sound cards. This term is also used to refer to a specific MIDI interface or sound card installed in your computer. See IRQ.

prestissimo


A very fast tempo that is slightly faster than presto. As high as 240 beats per minute.

prestissimo


A very fast tempo that is slightly faster than presto. As high as 240 beats per minute.

Program Change


A MIDI message sent to and from instruments that changes the patch or sound information for that instrument, resulting in a different timbre.

quantize


A feature that lengthens or shortens notes (and changes where notes begin) to even multiples of a specified beat subdivision. Quantizing can make somewhat sloppy playing sound tighter, but can also make a performance sound too rigid if applied incorrectly.

real-time recording


As opposed to step recording, lets you play a song and keeps track not only of the notes played, but how long and when each note was played so that the exact music can be reproduced. Audio tape recorders are always real-time recorders.

repeat


A sign or term used to indicate that a portion of music (a note, a measure, a section, and so on) is to be repeated.

rest


A symbol representing a period of musical or rhythmic silence. The duration of the silence is indicated by the particular rest symbol used. Rests are counted the same as the note values they replace.

RIFF MIDI file


RIFF (Resource Interchange File Format) is a file structure that was developed for multimedia files. A RIFF MIDI file is a particular kind of RIFF file that contains MIDI data. These files have a .RMI extension.

rhythm


The element of time in music, rhythm is the ordering and grouping of alternating strong and weak beats and is made up of tempo, accent, and meter.

rhythmic unit


The element of music designated by the bottom number of the time signature, the rhythmic unit is the note value assigned to the beat.

ritardando


An expression that indicates a gradual slowing of the tempo. (Italian for "retarding.")

root


The note from which a chord is derived. The lowest tone of a triad, the root gives the chord its name.

adagissimo


A slow tempo that is slightly slower than adagio. Typically around 43 beats per minute.

scale


A graduated series of musical tones within an octave. The pattern of whole steps and half steps determines the scale's mode (major or minor) and form.

score


Music written out for several performers; for example a choir would use a choral score, and an orchestra would use an orchestral score. The group of staves upon which all parts of a piece of music are written.

second


The interval between two notes that are either one half or one whole step apart. If the notes are one whole step apart, they form a major second. If the notes are one half step apart, they form a minor second.

segno



The sign that sometimes marks the beginning and other times the end of a repeated passage.

semitone


Also known as a half step, the smallest interval used in Western music.

sequencer


A MIDI multi-track recorder that is used to record, edit, and play back MIDI messages.

sforzando



An accent mark indicating that a note or chord is to be strongly accented or played with sudden emphasis. The sforzando accent, which represents a slightly less forceful attack than the forzato accent, does not change the duration of the note. (Italian for "forcing.")

sforzato



An accent mark indicating that a note or chord is to be played suddenly loud with gusto.

sharp



An accidental symbol that raises the pitch of the note by one half step.

single barline



A thin vertical line on a staff that separates metric groupings from one another in measures. Single barlines define measures by separating one from the next.

slur



A curved line used to connect two or more notes of different pitches. A slur, which can be placed above or below the notes, indicates that the notes are to be played legato. See tie.

sound source


The sound source determines whether the metronome signal is sent to the computer speaker (beeps or clicks) or as MIDI note data to the MIDI output.

staccato



An accent mark indicating that the notes are to be played in a short, choppy manner. A dot placed above or below a note usually means it is to be played staccato. (Italian for "detached.") Staccato is the opposite of legato.

step record


A special recording mode in which there is no notion of playing along "with the music". Instead, you enter notes one at a time at whatever rate you wish. The note value (duration) is set according to the currently selected note in the Music Palette.

system


A group of two or more staves connected with a single brace.

System Common Message


(MIDI term) One of the three types of MIDI system messages, a System Common message is a type of MIDI message that is common to all "receivers" in the system.

System Exclusive Message


(MIDI term) A special class of MIDI system message that allows manufacturer-specific information to be received and transmitted. Also known as SysEx., this message can be used to transfer sound data or change effects settings.

System Realtime Message


(MIDI term) Another of the three types of MIDI system messages, a System Realtime message is a type of MIDI message that is used to synchronize a network of sequencers.

tempo


The speed at which a piece of music is to be played. (Italian for "time.") The tempo marking is usually placed above the staff at the beginning of the piece. Some tempo expressions indicate an overall tempo for the piece of music such as Adagio (leisurely) or Presto (quickly), while others indicate a change in tempo such as ritardando (gradually slowing down).

tempo slider


The control located on the master module in the mixer that provides a means to adjust the overall tempo.

template


A file containing basic information that can be used to create a music document. Templates contain common instruments for the type of music chosen. You can create your own template files.

tenor clef



The moveable C-clef is called the tenor clef when it establishes the fourth line of the staff as middle C.

third (3rd)


The interval between two notes that are either two whole steps, or one whole step plus one half step apart. If the interval is two whole steps, the notes form a major third. If the interval is one whole step plus one half step, the notes form a minor second.

tick


Music time is measured in a [bar:beat:tick] format where a measure contains a specific number of beats, and a beat is comprised of a specific number of ticks. Ticks provide an incremental measure of time that is much finer than traditional music notation allows.

tie



A curved line used to connect two or more notes of the same pitch. A tie, which can be placed over or under the notes, indicates that the sound of the first note is to be held for the value of the second note with no break in the tone. See slur.

time signature



The symbol placed at the beginning of a composition, following the clef sign and key signature, that indicates the number of beats in a measure. The pair of numbers resembles a fraction. In simple time the top number indicates the number of beats in a measure while the bottom number indicates the note value equal to one beat. For example, in 2/4 time each measure contains the equivalent of two quarter notes.

tool tips


short descriptions of controls or other user interface items that are displayed in small popup windows. You display a tooltip for a control by moving the mouse pointer over the control.

track


A term from sequencers which represents a portion of music or control information that can be independently controlled. Each track is displayed as a staff on the Music Score and a track module in the Mixer. Each track can be polyphonic (contain many simultaneous notes), can be set to more than one MIDI channel, and has its own set of music and performance features.

transpose


To play or write music in a key different from the one in which the piece was originally written. Since all pitches are raised or lowered the same number of half-steps when music is transposed, the harmonies are maintained.

treble clef



Also known as the G-clef, the treble clef establishes the second line of the staff as the note G. Notes placed above middle C are usually written on this clef.

tremolo



An ornament indicating the rapid repetition of a single note. On a stringed instrument like a violin, the effect is produced using quick up and down strokes with the bow. (Italian for "trembling.")

triad


Also called a "common chord," any three note chord containing a root, a third, and a fifth.

trill



An ornament indicating the rapid alternation between two notes. The written note and the note above it are played back and forth in quick succession for the duration of the written note. See mordent.

triplet



Three notes of equal value that are played in the time normally occupied by two notes of the same value; indicated by a 3 above or below the notes. See tuplet.

tuplet


A notational device used to alter rhythmic values. See duplet and triplet.

turn



An ornament indicating the rapid play of a series of four successive notes. The first note played is the note above the written note, followed by the written note, then the note below the written note, and finally ending with the written note.

velocity


On a MIDI keyboard, velocity is a measure of how hard a key is pressed or released. For keyboards with velocity control, this can affect the loudness or volume of the sound; however, velocity is not a measure of volume. (Velocity settings range from 0-127.)

vivace


A fast, lively tempo equal to or faster than allegro. (Italian for "lively.") Around 150 beats per minute.

vivacissimo


A lively tempo that is slightly faster than vivace. Around 220 beats per minute.

vivo


A brisk, lively tempo. (Italian for "brisk.") About 160 beats per minute.

voice


The different parts or voices used in a composition. When two voices are written on one staff, for instance a melody and a harmony line, the note stems would point up for one voice and down for the other. Both voices would also require their own rests.

wave file


A sound file that contains a digital recording of voices, instruments, or other sounds. Wave files have a .WAV extension.

whole step


Also known as a whole tone and a major second, a whole step is equal to two half steps.